ОГЭ-2250

 

Задания 10-17

 

Scouts

 

On January 24, 1908, the Boy Scout movement started in England with the publication of Robert Baden-Powell’s handbook Scouting for Boys. The name Baden-Powell was already well-known to many English boys, and thousands of them eagerly bought the handbook. By the end of April, numerous Boy Scout troops had appeared across Britain.

In 1900, General Baden-Powell became a national hero in Britain for his 217-day defence of Mafeking in the Second Boer War in South Africa. Soon after, his military field manual, Aids to Scouting, written for British soldiers in 1899, became popular with a younger audience. Boys loved the lessons on tracking and observation and organized outdoor games using the book. Hearing this, Baden-Powell decided to write a non-military field manual for teenagers that would also emphasize the importance of morality and good deeds.

First, however, he decided to try out some of his ideas on an actual group of boys. On July 25, 1907, he took a diverse group of 21 boys to Brownsea Island in Dorset, where they set up camp for two weeks. With the aid of other instructors, he taught the boys about camping, observation, deduction, woodcraft, boating, life saving, and good manners. Many of these lessons were learned through original games that were very popular with the boys. The first Boy Scout meeting was a great success. Soon the handbook Scouting for Boys appeared.

With the success of Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell set up a central Boy Scouts’ office, which registered new Scouts and designed a uniform. By the end of 1908, there were 60,000 Boy Scouts, and troops began to appear in British Commonwealth countries across the globe. The Scout movement supported the boys in their physical, mental and spiritual development. The boys learned to work together to achieve goals, they also gave a promise to live by certain rules, and to help others when they could.

In September 1909, the first national Boy Scout meeting was held at the Crystal Palace in London. Ten thousand Scouts showed up, including a group of uniformed girls who called themselves the Girl Scouts. A year later, Baden-Powell organized the Girl Guides as a separate organization.

The American version of the Boy Scouts has its origins in an event that occurred in London in 1909. Chicago publisher William Boyce lost his way in the fog. So he stopped under a street light to read his map when he was approached by a young British boy. The boy asked the man if he could help and William Boyce explained that he had got lost. After guiding Boyce to his destination, the boy refused a tip, explaining that as a Boy Scout he would not accept payment for doing a good deed. This anonymous gesture inspired Boyce to organize several regional U.S. youth organizations. The Scouts movement soon spread throughout the country. In 1912, Juliette Gordon Low founded the Girl Scouts of America in Savannah, Georgia.

In 1920 the first international Boy Scout Jamboree was held in London, and Robert Baden-Powell was acclaimed Chief Scout of the World. The founder of the Scout organization died in 1941.

Nowadays, the Scouts Movement exists in 216 different countries all over the world, there are more than 28 million boy scouts and over 10 million girl scouts.

 

 

10. The word ‘scout’ was thought up by Robert Baden-Powell.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

11. The success of Aids to Scouting made Robert Baden-Powell write a similar book for young people.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

12. Robert Baden-Powell thought that the Scouts should be well-mannered.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

13. The first camp organised by Baden-Powell on an island was a failure.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

14. The rules of the Girl Scouts differed from the rules of the Boy Scouts.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

15. William Boyce founded the Boy Scouts organization in the USA because he was impressed by the behaviour of a British Scout.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

16. In the USA William Boyce founded both organizations: the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

17. Robert Baden-Powell was awarded the title Chief Scout of the World after his death.

1) True

2) False

3) Not stated

 

 

 

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