Задание 11



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Nenets culture affected by global warming


For 1,000 years the indigenous Nenets people have migrated along the 450-mile- long Yamal peninsula in northern Russia. In summer they wander northwards, taking their reindeer with them. In winter they return southwards.


But this remote region of north-west Siberia is now being affected by global warming. Traditionally the Nenets travel across the frozen River Ob in November (A) ______ around Nadym. These days, though, this annual winter migration is delayed. Last year the Nenets, together with many thousands of reindeer, had to wait until late December ) ______.


“Our reindeer were hungry. There wasn’t enough food,” Jakov Japtik, a Nenets reindeer herder, said. “The snow is melting sooner, quicker and faster than before. In spring it’s difficult for the reindeer to pull the sledges. They get tired,” Japtik said.


Herders say that the peninsula’s weather is increasingly unpredictable — with unseasonal snowstorms (С) ______, and milder longer autumns. In winter, temperatures used to go down to -50°C. Now they are normally around -30°C, according to Japtik. “Obviously we prefer -30°C. But the changes aren’t good for the reindeer (D) ______,” he said, setting off on his sledge to round up his reindeer herd.


Even here, in one of the most remote parts of the planet, (E) ______. Last year the Nenets arrived at a regular summer camping spot and discovered that half of their lake had disappeared. The water had drained away after a landslide. The Nenets report other curious changes — there are fewer mosquitoes and a strange increase in flies. Scientists say there is unmistakable evidence (F) ______.



  1. when the reindeer give birth in May
  2. that Yamal’s ancient permafrost is melting
  3. that the impact on Russia would be disastrous
  4. when the ice was finally thick enough to cross
  5. the environment is under pressure
  6. and set up their camps in the southern forests
  7. and in the end what is good for the reindeer is good for us






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