Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.
- Preparing for danger 5. Nice to look at and good for you
- Technology and medicine 6. Central structure
- Interesting sightseeing 7. Indoors and outdoors
- Unusual and extremely difficult 8. Cold variety
A. All Souls College is one of the most mysterious institutions at Oxford University. It was founded in the 1400s and stopped accepting undergraduates in the 19th century. Instead, the college accepts applications only from those who have already achieved the best undergraduate degrees in the country, and asks its applicants to take an entrance exam, which is thought to be the hardest in the world. For example, before 2010 one of the tasks was to write an essay on a single word. Previous words have included “water”, “style”, “innocence”, and “conversion”.
B. In the 1900s, scientists began using electronic devices to treat living things. They developed special instruments to help people with disabilities. Some devices, such as hearing aids and kidney dialysis machines, operate outside the body. Doctors place other electrical devices inside the body. For example, pacemakers help keep hearts beating steadily. In addition, scientists learned how to cut and rejoin genes which is called genetic engineering. This may help cure human diseases.
C. Water from hot springs very often contains minerals dissolved from the rocks. Such springs are called mineral springs. Salts, sulfur compounds, and gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in the spring water. The minerals and organisms that grow in the water give beautiful colors to the pools and wet rocks around hot springs. Since ancient times people have thought that such springs were good for their health. They have traveled there to drink and bathe in the waters. Many spas and resorts grew up around these picturesque springs.
D. As it is well known, snow consists of tiny crystals of ice. Snowfall is made up of both single ice crystals and clumps of ice crystals, which are called snowflakes. The way that ice crystals join together gives every snowflake a unique design. Even so, most snowflakes have six points or six sides. They form seven basic shapes: stars, needles, dendrites (having branches), plates, columns, columns capped with plates, and irregular (damaged). What shape a snowflake takes depends on the temperature and the amount of moisture in the cloud.
E. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic eruptions, may cause deadly ocean waves called tsunamis. By the time a tsunami reaches shore, it has gained tremendous size and power which is enough to destroy entire coastal villages or towns. Tsunamis cannot be stopped, but there are ways to defend against them. Scientists around the world watch for early signs of earthquakes. They also note unusual changes in ocean levels. With this information, scientists can warn people to leave areas that a tsunami might hit.
F. In order to study things under controlled conditions, some ecologists work in laboratories. For example, they can experiment to see how plants react to different amounts of light or water. Such studies are harder in a natural setting because weather and other natural conditions cannot be controlled. However, many ecologists do work in natural settings. They look at all the different factors that affect ecosystems, or communities of living things. Studies in the outdoors are useful because they show what is actually happening in the environment.
G. Several cities in Russia were built around fortresses called kremlins. A kremlin was often located along a river. A wall, a moat, and towers usually separated it from the surrounding parts of the city. Kremlins contained cathedrals and palaces for princes and bishops as well as government offices and weapons of war. The most famous kremlin is in central Moscow, which is often called just the Kremlin. It has long been a symbol of Russia’s power. UNESCO declared the Kremlin and Red Square a World Heritage site in 1990.