Задание 10


  1. Pluses and minuses                                                                                       5. Why they win
  2. Difficult to prove                                                                                             6. Useful signs
  3. Strategy for success                                                                                       7. Genre differences
  4. Choosing one’s lifestyle                                                                                8. Fresh start



A. What sets a musical and an opera apart is that in opera, music is the driving force; in musical theatre, words come first. While listening to an opera, it usually doesn’t matter what language it’s sung in if you know the basic plot – but in musical theatre, the details come from the lyrics. This explanation clarifies why opera stars often sing in a different style than Broadway performers do, why operas and musicals are typically about different subjects, and why musical composition and orchestration vary between the two disciplines.


B. When the Internet was invented, nobody really thought about security. The main aim was to connect computer networks over great distances. Although a lot of money have been spent on making the Internet safer, security has actually become worse. Experts say that the whole net has become so unsafe that it would be best to start all over again. Nobody knows what a new Internet would look like but users would have to give up their anonymity for a bit more safety. Today’s Internet might end up as a bad neighbourhood you just wouldn’t pass through.


C. In the past decades African runners have dominated marathons all over the world. The Ethiopian Abebe Bikila ran barefoot to his first gold medal in the 1960 Olympic Games. He repeated his victory four years later. Experts think that African runners are better because they train in higher places in their home countries. Their legs may also be stronger than ours and they may have the ability to collect and store more oxygen. All of these help them become very good runners.


D. Watching TV shows is a great way to learn spoken English, slang words, understand culture reference and humour. However, people on TV shows sometimes speak with grammar mistakes, which is often a part of character development. Characters talk with an accent, using non-standard English and pronouncing words in a way that is difficult to understand. While it is a great way to practice listening and talking in everyday life, it is probably not a good source for “proper English”.


E. When you are running a marathon it is very important to drink a lot so that your body does not dehydrate. You should run at a steady pace. Don’t start too fast or you will become tired very quickly and won’t be able to continue. This is called “hitting the wall”. In most cases runners then give up completely. On the other hand, you shouldn’t start too slowly or else you won’t reach the time limit you want to achieve. After a marathon most runners feel pain in their muscles. This is normal and it may take a few days before your body becomes normal again.


F. In ancient times, people could only use the power of observation to tell what the weather would bring. They could observe the changing patterns of the seasons. This taught them when to plant and when the crops would grow. People also observed animals and the growing cycles of plants to predict changes in the weather. They could tell when a rainy season was coming and when it would get cold. People used their senses to see and smell changes in the weather. The migration of animals was also a good indication of change.


G. It is not clear who was the first to reach the North Pole. A US explorer called Frederick Cook insisted on having walked there in 1908, but nobody could support his claim. Another American called Robert Peary announced that he had reached the Pole in 1909, but because his men were not trained navigators, none of them could be sure. Because the Arctic is made of ice that floats on the sea, rather than snow and ice on rock like the Antarctic, any evidence of visiting the North Pole will quickly be swallowed up by water.








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